The circular economy, which Brussels has recently started promoting, is a pillar of the Green Deal and is to be introduced in all sectors. . 

Products or their raw materials must be kept in the cycle for as long as possible in order to reduce waste, emissions and energy use and to consume fewer resources overall. However, a closed-loop economy presupposes that products are designed to be durable, that they are maintained and repaired, and that they can be reused after their first phase of use. This in turn requires the possibility of refurbishment and remanufacturing. Once the product as a whole has reached the end of its useful life, it must be possible to recycle the raw materials from which it is made. In this way, they still remain in the cycle and in turn serve as resources for new products 

Learn more about how machine tools have been role models for this model for many decades : The machine tool as a model for the circular economy